Revel the Mechanisms of Host Defense by Cross-regulation of Toll-like Receptor (TLR) Responses

A recent Nature Immunology paper describes the epigenetic landscape that results from the integration of the inflammatory cytokines type I interferons and TNF.


This comprehensive epigenomics approach to the analysis of human macrophages showed that the proinflammatory cytokines TNF and type I interferons induced transcriptional cascades that altered chromatin states to broadly reprogram responses induced by TLR4. TNF tolerized genes encoding inflammatory molecules to prevent toxicity while preserving the induction of genes encoding antiviral and metabolic molecules. Type I interferons potentiated the inflammatory function of TNF by priming chromatin to prevent the silencing of target genes of the transcription factor NF-κB that encode inflammatory molecules. The priming of chromatin enabled robust transcriptional responses to weak upstream signals. Similar chromatin regulation occurred in human diseases. Our findings reveal that signaling crosstalk between interferons and TNF is integrated at the level of chromatin to reprogram inflammatory responses, and identify previously unknown functions and mechanisms of action of these cytokines.

We provide related ELISA  kits for you to start  far-reaching discoveries in this field.

Product CodeProduct NameReactivityDetection RangeSensitivity
E-EL-H1539Human TLR4(Toll-Like Receptor 4) ELISA KitHuman0.31~20 ng/mL0.19 ng/mL
E-EL-H0109Human TNF-α(Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha) ELISA KitHuman7.81~500 pg/mL4.69 pg/mL
E-EL-H2306Human TNF-β(Tumor Necrosis Factor Beta) ELISA KitHuman15.63~1000 pg/mL9.38 pg/mL
E-EL-H0085Human IFN-β(Interferon Beta) ELISA KitHuman31.25~2000 pg/mL18.75 pg/mL
E-EL-H0108Human IFN-γ(Interferon Gamma) ELISA KitHuman15.63~1000 pg/mL9.38 pg/mL
E-EL-H2532Human IFN-α(Interferon Alpha) ELISA KitHuman15.63~1000 pg/mL9.38 pg/mL
E-EL-H1387Human RANκL(Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor Kappa B Ligand) ELISA KitHuman0.16~10 ng/mL0.10 ng/mL
E-EL-H1388Human NF-κB p65(Nuclear Factor Kappa B p65) ELISA KitHuman0.16~10 ng/mL0.10 ng/mL
Revel the Mechanisms of Host Defense by Cross-regulation of Toll-like Receptor (TLR) Responses
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